Technology transfer is almost entirely devoted to the purposes of mitigation, particularly for the energy sector and is usually a transfer of an idea or a tool of developed countries to developing countries. Still questionable whether the technology transfer for adaptation should also follow the same pattern. It is important to emphasize that the technology for different adaptation of mitigation technologies. Unlike mitigation in many cases involving new technologies or measures, the adaptation in general is a continuation of an ongoing process and the technology is widely applied. Adaptation measures are not concentrated in one sector such as mitigation, but spread across sectors such as water, health, agriculture, infrastructure, marine and others. Compared to mitigation, adaptation of technology is more complicated and challenging but generally do not cost as much as mitigation.
Adaptation in Coastal Areas
According to the UNFCCC, 2006, the technology adaptation in coastal areas can be divided into three by its nature: to protect, retreat (reverse) and accommodating. Technology that protects nature divided into three: hardware and software structure based on local wisdom and technology. Included in the hard structures is the dam / dam, sea wall, protecting the ocean waves, breaking waves and elevated house. Included in the structure is a soft sand dune, wetland restoration or creation, replacement of sand in offshore (beach nourishment) and artificial reefs. Meanwhile, local wisdom has been applied generally include a wall of wood, stone or of coconut leaves, afforestation (planting back), protection of coral reefs.
Included in the retreat of action is to determine the backward zone, relocation of threatened buildings, banning development in areas affected / prone to erosion and make the protection of land.
Meanwhile, the type of action to accommodate them is evacuation and early warning systems, insurance, new agricultural practices such as seeds that are resistant to high salinity, regulations / standards of building new, more adaptive, improving drainage and desalination system.
Two technologies that are considered important by stakeholders Indonesia is a system of desalination and waste water recycling using membrane technology. Both are considered strategic for the coastal communities who are struggling to meet the needs of clean water.
Another technology which is considered as important is a sophisticated fishing technology. As a result of climate change, rising sea temperature and salinity changes and consequently changes in fish migration patterns and migration of fish into deeper waters. To overcome this, fishermen need a more sophisticated technology.
Hard structures / buildings such as dams and sea walls, soft structure and a choice of local wisdom has been applied widely and is not blocked in the technology constraints.
Replanting mangroves are believed to have considerable impact for the adaptation of coastal zones. Meanwhile, the application of early warning and evacuation systems are also considered important for disaster-prone areas including coastal areas.
Adaptation to Water Source
Integrated water resources management (IWRM) become a necessity in the face of water scarcity. Provision of clean water should be accessible to everyone, especially the poor. IWRM is applied together with other adaptation measures.
Technology adaptation can be applied from the user side and the water suppliers. In urban areas, for example, companies or bodies of water and sanitation providers can implement technologies such as recycling waste water, reduce leakage, using a waterless sanitation and implement water standards rules. While water users can increase the capacity of the reservoir and make desalination. In industry, water used for cooling process can be either lower-quality water (not drinking water).
In areas such as clean water is scarce in the coastal areas and in arid areas, drinking water processing technology and advanced sanitation technologies expected to help adaptation to climate change in the area.
Adaptation in Agriculture Sector
In the third assessment report (TAR) it, the IPCC concluded that the State in areas of water shortages, tropical and temperate zones / moderate in Asia will experience food security defeated by high heat and water scarcity, sea level rise, floods, droughts and tropical cyclones .
Up to a certain degree, the plant will naturally adapt to extreme climatic conditions. But still very little is known how much the plants can withstand the pressures of high temperatures. Most of the adaptation of grain crops require human intervention.
Adaptation efforts that can be done in the field of agricultural research on the varieties of which are new, more adaptive to high temperature and less water. Other efforts are needed in agricultural irrigation water use regulation to make it more efficient and control erosion and use of drip irrigation.
Agricultural practices also need to be adjusted to maintain soil moisture and nutrients, reduce erosion and run-off water control. For that crop rotation can be done, do not do mono-cropping (planting only one crop only) and keep the spacing. One other effort to adjust the impact of global warming is changing the time of planting, such as seed dispersal done earlier.
Without climate change, the actual adaptation options are already widely applied in Indonesia. One of the most important adaptation measures in agriculture are going to research new varieties are more resistant to global warming.
UNFCCC, "Technologies for Adaptation to Climate Change", 2006